Suggested Citation: Kleeman, Michael J., Christina Zapata, John Stilley, Mark Hixson (2013) PM 2.5 Co-Benefits of Climate Change Legislation Part 2: California Governor's Executive Order S-3-05 Applied to the Transportation Sector. Climatic Change 117 (1-2), 399 - 414
California Governor’s Executive Order (CGEO) S-3-05 requires that California greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions be reduced to 80 % below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Meeting this target will require drastic changes in transportation technology, fuel, and behavior which will reduce criteria pollutant emissions as well as GHG emissions. The improvement to local air quality caused by the reduced criteria pollutant emissions must be calculated to fully evaluate the overall benefits and costs of CGEO S-3-05. In the present study, seven different transportation scenarios that move towards the goals of CGEO S-3-05 in the transportation sector were examined to determine how they would affect future airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in California: (1) hydrogen fuel cells, (2) electric vehicles, (3) high efficiency vehicles, (4) public mass transit, (5) biofuels, (6) biofuels + hybrid electric vehicles, and (7) hydrogen fuel cells + electric vehicles. The air quality implications of each scenario were evaluated using a chemical transport model applied during a wintertime stagnation episode representing future climate in California. Scenarios (6) and (7) reduced population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations by ~9 % and PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) concentrations by ~30 % relative to base-case predictions.