As populations and economies expand, increasing quantities of natural resources are extracted and processed, more goods are moved, more people travel, more energy is used, and more wastes are generated. One outcome is over 800 million motor vehicles operating in the world today, consuming around 40 million barrels of petroleum per day, producing about a half of the urban pollution, and emitting over a tenth of the world's anthropogenic greenhouse gases (International Energy Agency, 2000). This is not sustainable unless energy and environmental performance is improved. In this chapter, we focus on the energy and environmental performance of land-based vehicles, especially those operating on roads. We examine internal combustion engine vehicles, electric-drive vehicles, and alternative fuels.
Published in Handbook of Transport and the Environment, ed. D.A. Hensher and K.J. Button, Elsevier Ltd., chapter 10.