Suggested Citation: Johnston, Robert A. and Caroline J. Rodier (1997) A Comparative Systems-Level Analysis: Automated Freeways, HOV Lanes, Transit Expansion, Pricing Policies and Land Use Intensification. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-97-26
The travel and emissions effects of advanced freeway automation and travel demand management measures were simulated in the Sacramento region for a twenty year time horizon with a state-of-the practice regional travel demand model (SACMET 95). Total consumer welfare and consumer welfare by income class were also obtained for these technology scenarios by applying the Small and Rosen method (1981) to the mode choice models in SACMET 95. The scenarios examined included various combinations of automated freeways, new HOV lanes, transit, land use intensification, and pricing policies. We found that pricing policies, with and without transit and roadway capacity expansion, reduced travel delay and emissions and increased total consumer welfare. We respect to transit investment and supportive land use intensification, we found comparatively modest reductions in travel delay and emissions and increased consumer welfare for all income classes. We also found that freeway automation significantly reduced travel delay; however, it increased emissions. In addition, freeway automation increased total consumer welfare as long as gains in travel time savings resulting from reduced travel delay were greater than the full private automobile operating costs of additional travel; although, only the highest income groups reaped these gains.