Lipman, Timothy E., Kenneth S. Kurani, Daniel Sperling (1994) Incentive Policies for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-94-20
Battery-power electric drive is the only currently available zero-emission technology usable for motor vehicles. As a result, the ZEV mandate has spurred a renewed interest in EVs. The main obstacle to the introduction of EVs for use on a mass scale is the high cost and poor energy storage capacity of electrical batteries relative to gasoline.
Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are EVs that are designed to be used only for short, urban trips at relatively low speeds. As such, they are better suited to the limitations of today's batteries than are full-sized EVs designed for highway travel. As supplements to a household's group of vehicles, NEVs could replace the vast majority of short, urban trips. Because these trips account for a disproportionate share of emissions, NEVs provide even greater per-kilometer emission reductions than full-sized EVs.