Wang, Michael Q., Catherine Kling, Daniel Sperling (1993) Emission Control Costs for Light-Duty Vehicles. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-93-27
Using this approach and the information on emission control parts and their prices for new light duty vehicles sold in California in 1990, per-vehicle control cost and total control cost for all new light-duty vehicles have been estimated.
At the level of cost to vehicle manufacturers, per-vehicle control cost ranges from $220 to $1,450, depending on vehicle size and manufacturer. The sales-weighted average cost is estimated as $445 per vehicle. The total control cost of the 1990 light-duty vehicles sold in California is estimated to be about $698 million. At the level of cost to consumers, per-vehicle control cost ranges from $370 to $2,430, with a sales-weighted average of $748. The total control cost of the 1990 light-duty vehicles sold in California is estimated to be about $1.2 billion to consumers.