Wang, Michael Q., Daniel Sperling, J. Olmstead (1993) Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-93-33
Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle type from the estimated vehicle life cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.