Washington, Simon P., Randall L. Guensler, Daniel Sperling (1993) Emission Impacts of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-RP-93-13
This paper identifies the IVHS technology bundles most likely to result in air quality benefits. The assessment is preliminary, as current state of the practice emission modeling is not sufficient for quantitatively assessing the effects of flow smoothing – an effect common among IVHS technologies. This analysis concludes that the most beneficial application of IVHS will be to those technologies aimed at improving non-recurrent congestion events. These include rapid accident response systems, off-peak electronic toll collection, and variable message signs. Peak period application of IVHS technologies such as automation, electronic toll collection, and traffic signal management will provide very uncertain and perhaps even negligible air quality benefits. The assessment reported in this paper does not take into account the implementation of simultaneous technologies such as electric vehicles and market strategies which could potentially improve the current outlook. In addition, it is assumed that no significant long term changes in mode choice, fleet characteristics, or travel behavior will occur with the application of IVHS technologies. We do recognize, however, that carefully planned and implemented IVHS systems can be designed to affect such changes in driver behavior, typically in concert with demand management strategies. Our analysis suggests that realistic solutions to air quality problems will likely be solved with a mix of IVHS technologies and other transportation measures such as congestion pricing, preferential treatment of shared modes, and the development of alternatively fueled IVHS fleets (i.e. automation with electric vehicles).