Wang, Michael Q., Catherine Kling, Daniel Sperling (1993) Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 43 (11), 1461 - 1471
Using information on emission control parts and their prices for new light-duty vehicles sold in California in 1990, per-vehicle control costs and total control costs for all new light-duty vehicles have been estimated. The cost to vehicle manufacturers per vehicle for emission control ranges from $220 to $1,460, depending on vehicle size and manufacturer. The sales-weighted average cost to manufacturers is $445 per vehicle. The total cost of emission control technology for 1990 light-duty vehicles sold in California is estimated to be about $698 million.
The corresponding cost to consumers per vehicle for emission control ranges from $370 to $2,430, with a sales-weighted average of $748. The total cost for emission control of 1990 light-duty vehicles sold in California is about $1.2 billion to consumers. Per-vehicle costs for vehicles sold elsewhere in the U.S. in 1990 are similar since emission standards were similar that year.