Button, Kenneth, David Hensher, Daniel Sperling (2003) "Cleaner Vehicles" in Handbook of Transport and the Environment. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-03-31
Transport provides the technological means to facilitate movement of passengers and goods, but it is also at the centre of the growing concern about environmental degradation in the form of air pollution, global warming, noise, and safety. Combined with traffic congestion in major conurbations - at the ports, at the airports, and on the roads, the transport sector has been cited as a major contributor to the ills of twentieth century society.
Despite the concerns about adverse environmental effects, it cannot be overlooked that there are, however, many positive features of transport. The challenge is to manage the benefits of transportation better so that the broad set of environmental impacts are reduced to acceptable levels while ensuring acceptable outcomes in terms of economic performance and equity. Sustainable transport will require careful consideration of technological innovation and increasing consumer awareness.