Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways (STEPS)
The objectives of this chapter are to
- assess the literature regarding the integration of renewable energy into current and possible future energy systems;
- present the constraints that can exist when integrating renewable energy into current electrical supply systems, heating and cooling networks, gas grids, liquid fuels and autonomous systems, particularly for renewable energy shares that are signiï¬cantly higher than at present;
- and determine whether increasing renewable energy integration within present energy supply systems and facilitating the increased rate of deployment of renewable energy technologies in the transport, building, industry and agricultural sectors are feasible propositions.
The chapter examines the complex cross-cutting issues that relate to renewable energy integration across centralized, decentralized and autonomous energy supply systems and into the wide range of end-use technologies, buildings and appliances used to provide desirable energy services (heating, cooling, lighting, communication, entertainment, motor drives, mobility, comfort, etc.). These issues include energy distribution and transmission through energy carriers, system reliability and quality, energy supply/demand balances, system ï¬‚exibility, storage systems, project ownership and ï¬nancing, operation of the market, supply security and social acceptance. Regional differences between the integration of various renewable energy systems are highlighted.
Suggested Citation: Sims, R., P. Mercado, W. Krewitt, G. Bhuyan, D. Flynn, H. Holttinen, G. Jannuzzi, S. Khennas, Y. Liu, M. O’Malley, L. J. Nilsson, J. Ogden, K. Ogimoto, H. Outhred, Ø. Ulleberg, F. van Hulle, 2011: Integration of Renewable Energy into Present and Future Energy Systems. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA