Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways (STEPS)
Jaffe, Amy Myers (2003) United States and the Middle East: Policies and Dilemmas. James A Baker III Institute for Public Policy
The purpose of this paper is to explore the topic of the externality costs associated with rising U.S. oil consumption that are not easily quantifiable by strictly economic or monetary calculations. These hard to measure externalities include the strategic and diplomatic costs that, particularly since the attacks on the U.S. on September 11, 2011, have heightened relevance in American foreign policy debate. They also include the rising cost of U.S. military intervention of the protection of the flow of oil to the international community, both in terms of dollar expense and human lives.