Handy, Susan L., Kelly J. Clifton, Janice Fisher (1998) The Effectiveness of Land Use Policies as a Strategy for Reducing Automobile Dependence: A Study of Austin Neighborhoods. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-98-14
The work described in this report represents an effort to better understand the link between urban form and travel behavior and to evaluate the potential effectiveness of land use policies as a strategy for reducing automobile dependence. This work builds on previous research in this area but attempts to go beyond it by exploring the motivations for travel as well as the patterns of travel. Travel surveys and focus groups were used to study the travel choices of residents of six case study neighborhoods in Austin, TX. The results suggest that the role urban form plays in travel behavior is not entirely straightforward, sometimes influencing travel choices directly, sometimes indirectly, sometimes influencing choices in the short term, sometimes the long term, and sometimes not having any measurable influence on choices at all. In the end, it appears that certain land use policies can help to provide alternatives to driving, but that the reduction in driving is likely to be small.