Burke, Andrew and J. M. Evans (1997) Experimental Evaluations of Packaged Electrochemical Capacitors for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Applications. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-RP-97-16
Tests of a number of packaged electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) were performed to evaluate their performance under constant current and constant power charge/discharge conditions and on the PSFUDS transient cycle. The devices tested were the Maxwell UC-1500 and UC-3600 devices, the new Panasonic 3V, 800F device, a Cap-XX 3V, 800F device, a 50V, 200F device from Superfarad, and a 60V, 6.5F device from Econd. All the devices except for the Econd device used an organic electrolyte. The devices were compared in terms of energy density, power density, resistance, round-trip efficiency on the PSFUDS cycle, and self-discharge characteristics. Data sheets were prepared for each of the devices tested in a format consistent with that prescribed by the United States Department of Energy for reporting ultracapacitor test results. The test data indicate that several of the devices have performance suitable for demonstration of ultracapacitors in electric and hybrid vehicles.