Burke, Andrew and J. R. Miller (1995) Test Procedures for High Energy Density, Electrochemical Capacitors. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-RP-95-33
The testing of ultracapacitors has evolved over the last 45 years as devices have become available and it was necessary to determine their characteristics relative to the requirements for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. It is widely recognized in the ultracapacitor community that there is need for a consistent set of test procedures that can be used by the various groups involved in ultracapacitor device development. In this paper, the test procedures that have been used to evaluate the deliverables from the United States Department of Energy's Ultracapacitor Development Program are reviewed and typical data obtained are presented to illustrate the behavior of state-of-the-art devices. Procedures for both large signal dc and small signal ac impedance testing are discussed as they relate to ultracapacitor research and development. The large signal dc tests make use of equipment and test approaches common to battery testing. The ac impedance tests make use of a programmable potentiostat and the associated software commonly used by electrochemists to evaluate electrodes and small battery cells. The test procedures and data analysis methods are also related to both dc and ac modeling of the ultracapacitors.