Gard, John, Paul P. Jovanis, Ryuichi Kitamura, V. Narasayya (1994) Public Attitudes toward Conversion of Mixed-Use Freeway Lanes to HOV Lanes. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-94-06
However, with increasing public concerns over air quality and traffic congestion, it is conceivable that urban residents in California are now more receptive to the conversion of mixed-use freeway lanes into HOV lanes. This calls for the re-evaluation of public perceptions and attitudes towards HOV lanes in general and lane conversions in particular. To accomplish this, a review was conducted of the existing literature on HOV lanes and their conversion. This was followed by a series of six focus groups in late 1992 and early 1993. Two groups each were held in West Covina, San Francisco and Anaheim, California. One group consisted of solo drivers who used freeways with HOV lanes while the other consisted of carpoolers, vanpoolers and public transit users. The focus groups provided valuable information which aided in the design of a telephone survey.