Publication Detail

Simulation Study of Driving Performance with Selected Route Guidance Systems



Suggested Citation:
Srinivasan, Raghavan, Chun-Zin Yang, Paul P. Jovanis, Ryuichi Kitamura, Mohammed Anwar (1994) Simulation Study of Driving Performance with Selected Route Guidance Systems. Transportation Research Part C 2 (2), 73 - 90

Experiments were conducted in a driving simulator developed by the Hughes Aircraft Corporation to study the human factors aspects of route guidance systems. The primary objective of this research was to study how in-vehicle route guidance system attributes, driver characteristics, and traffic conditions affect driving performance. Four types of route guidance systems were tested. They are: (1) Paper Map, (2) Heads Down Electronic Map, (3) Heads Up Display (HUD) in combination with Electronic Map, and (4) Voice Guidance in combination with Electronic Map. Data were collected for a total of 18 subjects, 9 male and 9 female. All subjects were tested in all four route guidance systems. The following performance measures were collected in the simulator: Number of Navigation Errors and Reaction times to external events. Apart from these, an unobstrusive eye tracker was also used to monitor eye fixations. Data were also collected on driver preferences and subjective workload associated with each of the four route guidance systems. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: (a) Subjective workload, user perceptions, eye tracker dwelling times, and number of errors all indicated that the voice guidance/electronic map combination performed the best, and the paper map the worst. The electronic map was found to be the second best, closely followed by the HUD electronic map. (b) The reaction time modelling yielded slightly different device performance depending on the event being reacted to. The heads up display/electronic map combination performed much better in comparison to its performance in the other performance measures, with voice/electronic map also doing well. The paper map again consistently performed the worst. (c) Driving performance did vary with gender and experience. Not surprisingly, drivers with higher experience performed better than drivers with lower experience. This effect was more prominent among females than males.