Burke, Andrew (1994) Electrochemical Capacitors for Electric Vehicles—Technology Update and Implementation Considerations. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-RP-94-35
Electrochemical capacitor (ultracapacitor) technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. Data is presented for single cell and bipolar devices showing energy densities of 1-2 Wh/kg for 1 V, aqueous electrolyte devices and 5-7 Wh/kg for 3V, organic electrolyte devices. Tests have been performed on the devices at constant powers up to 3kW/kg. Barriers to the availability of these devices in quantities and costs suitable for vehicle testing are discussed as well as the need for interface electronics between the capacitor and the battery if the capacitor is to satisfactorily load level the battery.