Wang, Michael Q., Daniel Sperling, J. Olmstead (1993) Emission Impacts, Life-Cycle Cost Changes and Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Methanol, Ethanol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural Gas, and Electricity-Fueled Vehicles. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-93-07
Our estimate shows that dollar-per-ton emission control costs of AFVs range from as little as zero to as much as $46,000. Most AFV types have control costs less than $25,000, still below the $25,000 to $40,000 control costs for the five expensive control measures that have been adopted by South Coast Air Quality Management District of California. Various policy options need to be explored to encourage use of AFVs for air pollution control purpose.