Meeting Both ZEV and PNGV Goals with a Hybrid Electric Vehicle - An Exploration
Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways (STEPS)
Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/961718
Suggested Citation: An, F., Frank, A., and Ross, M., "Meeting Both ZEV and PNGV Goals with a Hybrid Electric Vehicle - An Exploration," SAE Technical Paper 961718, 1996, doi:10.4271/961718.
This paper is written to provide information on the fuel efficiency, emissions and energy cost of vehicles ranging from a pure electric (ZEV) to gasoline hybrid vehicles with electric range varying from 30 mi (50km) to 100 mi (160km). The Federal government s PNGV and CARB s ZEV have different goals, this paper explores some possibilities for hybrid-electric vehicle designs to meet both goals with existing technologies and batteries. The SAE/CARB testing procedures for determining energy and emission performance for EV and HEV and CARB s HEV ruling for ZEV credit are also critically evaluated. This paper intends to clarify some confusion over the comparison, discussion and design of electric- hybrid- and conventional- vehicles as well.