Publication Detail

Using the Fleet of Long Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles


Presentation Series

Plug-In Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center

Suggested Citation:
DeMauro, Catherine J. and Andrew A. Frank (2016) Using the Fleet of Long Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-PS-16-02

We have found over the last 100 years that correct automobile driving experience, requires an energy storage reserve to alleviate range anxiety. The data also shows that the average driver only goes 30 to 35 miles a day but that he carries around 250 to 300 miles of reserve fuel or energy.

The physical differences between electric and liquid fuel drives are as follows:

  1. Electric energy storage capacity is about 1/100th that of liquid fuel 
  2. Electric energy storage is bidirectional. 
  3. Vehicle characteristics and convenience must not change regardless of energy type. 
  4. Battery weight for automobile range is 50 to 100 times that of liquid fuel. 
  5. All solar and wind electric generation systems need energy storage. 
  6. General transportation vehicles are used less than 3 hours per day and parked somewhere the rest of the time per day. If they are “plugged in” and grid connected, they could be either absorbing or distributing energy if they are fitted with a bidirectional charger that is under the control of the central Electric Utility system. 
  7. Both transportation and domestic electric energy needs can be satisfied by the PHEV with long electric drive range capability. Long Electric Drive Range is defined as PHEV’s with at least double the electric energy storage needed for the average daily driving.

Such PHEVs, can be used to balance the grid and absorb and redistribute the energy from local solar and wind generators, across the nation. These PHEVs are dual fuel vehicle without range anxiety and can be called PHEVLER or pronounced “Fevler”.

The PHEVLERs have been shown, on the average, to use over 90% electric energy and less than 10% liquid fuel annually. The PHEVLER will achieve ZERO CO2 using only solar and wind electricity and biofuel. The concept requires incentives and distribution policies as well as low cost and low power hardware to allow bidirectional flow of energy. The initial calculations show that ordinary electric circuits with a 1.5 to 2 kW bidirectional charging system in these kinds of cars and trucks but managed and controlled by the electric utility companies can improve the Electric Distribution System with no change and at the same time absorb locally generated renewable energy.