Sperling, Daniel and Timothy E. Lipman (2000) International Assessment of Electric-Drive Vehicles: Policies, Markets, and Technologies. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Journal Article UCD-ITS-RP-00-20
The desirability of electric-drive vehicles will vary over time and across regions. In the case of Sweden, key factors determining which technologies might be desirable and when, include the following: the small size of the domestic market, inexpensive and clean electricity, Sweden's strong environmental ethic, a strong automotive industry (including buses and trucks), a well educated population, and strong advanced technology and telecommunications firms. In the long term, we find that virtually all versions of electric-drive technology are expected to eventually prove environmentally superior to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, and in many cases also to prove superior in satisfying consumer desires. In the short term, we find that major automotive companies
- have mostly abandoned plans to build and market conventional-sized battery-electric vehicles
- are on the verge of deciding whether to make major investments in fuel cell electric vehicles
- are tentatively beginning to invest in hybrid electric vehicles.
Based on the above insights, and an assessment of Sweden's particular situation, we suggest the following two strategies for Sweden:
- An industrial and environmental policy of designing, manufacturing, and deploying heavy duty vehicles (buses and trucks) powered by electric drive;
- An environmental policy of deploying small electric vehicles for on and off-road transportation applications.
Published by KFB (The Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board) as "KFB-Rapport 2000:30".