Ory, David T. and Patricia L. Mokhtarian (2005) An Empirical Analysis of Causality in the Relationship Between Telecommuting and Residential and Job Relocation. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-05-03
The results indicate that, as expected, residential and job moves that are temporally associated with telecommuting episodes tend to increase commute time and length compared to other moves – though the evidence is not statistically significant. Analyzing the temporal order of telecommuting engagement and residential relocation, the data show that those who are telecommuting and then move actually tend to relocate closer to their workplace, whereas those who begin telecommuting following a residential relocation tended to have moved much farther from their workplace. For job relocations, the results differed slightly. Here, both key casual groups (those who are inferred to have their relocation caused by telecommuting and those who are inferred to have their telecommuting engagement caused by relocation) relocate, on average, to jobs farther from home. Analysis of the stated importance of telecommuting to specific residential relocations did not show a convincing effect toward more distant moves. Linear regression models of the change in one-way commute length following a residential relocation confirm that the beginning of a telecommuting engagement following the move is associated with increases in commute length, whereas engagement before the move is not. Thus, the evidence more strongly supports the positive view of telecommuting, that it is ameliorating the negative transportation impacts of moves that occur for other reasons.