Swan, David H., Blake E. Dickinson, Murali P. Arikara, Manohar K. Prabhu (1995) Construction and Performance of a High Voltage Zinc Bromine Battery in an Electric Vehicle. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-RP-95-02
This paper describes the design, construction, testing and installation of a 391 volt, 35 kWh zinc bromine battery in an electric vehicle. This research project, was referred to as the "Endura Project" and it resulted in the construction of the highest voltage zinc bromine battery ever to be used in an electric vehicle.
The zinc bromine battery is a high energy density battery that utilizes low cost materials (predominantly polyethylene plastic). It has a relatively high energy density (60 to 70 Wh/kg of battery weight) and is modular in its construction. It utilizes a water cooling loop and normally operates between 32 and 45°C.
The Endura project constructed a state of the art zinc bromine battery, used an advanced charging system, and an advanced AC propulsion system. These components were integrated in a Geo Prizm and used to compete in the APS Electric 500 in Phoenix, AZ (3rd place, 3/94), the World Clean Air Rally in LA (1st Place, 4/94) and the 1994 American Tour de Sol (2nd Place 5/94).