Swan, David H. (1995) Zinc Bromine Battery Technology for Electric Vehicle Applications. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Presentation Series UCD-ITS-RP-95-13
The zinc bromine battery is a high energy density battery that utilizes low cost materials in its construction. It has a relatively high energy density (60 to 70 Wh/kg of battery weight) and is modular in design. It operates at ambient temperature and has unique operating characteristics that are advantageous for electric vehicle applications. This paper describes the design, and construction, of a 391 volt, 35 kWh zinc bromine battery for an electric vehicle. This research project resulted in the construction of the "California 1" battery, the highest voltage zinc bromine battery ever to be constructed for use in an electric vehicle.