Koenig, Brett E., Cameron Yee, Randall L. Guensler, Paul P. Jovanis (1994) Incidents, Lane Closures, and Rapid Incident Response: Congestion and Emissions Analysis. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-94-02
The database established revealed that when the FSP discovers and clears vehicle disablements on patrol it decreases the duration by over half compared to other removal services. When this difference was modeled on FREQ 11, the results show positive congestion and emission impacts from the Roving FSP's quick removal of lane blocking incidents. Comparing standard lane closure practices (modeled by closing one lane to clear an accident) to an alternative method (modeled by closing two lanes for a shorter duration) reveals that congestion and emissions is almost always minimized using the standard practices.