Mokhtarian, Patricia L. and K. Sato (1994) A Comparison of the Policy, Social, and Cultural Contexts for Telecommuting in Japan and the United States. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-94-13
Reasons for interest in telecommuting are compared, including commute stress, urban growth management, air quality/energy concerns, employee recruitment and retention, savings on office space costs, and disaster response. Cultural barriers to the adoption of telecommuting in Japan are discussed, including the lack of formal job definition, preference for face-to-face communication, the importance of the group, limitations of home-based telecommuting, and others. Operational issues potentially supporting or inhibiting the adoption of telecommuting are also described, including technology, marketing, and training.