Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways (STEPS)
Available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2015.04.014
Sohnen, Julia, Yueyue Fan, Joan M. Ogden, Christopher Yang (2015) A Network-based Dispatch Model for Evaluating the Spatial and Temporal Effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on GHG Emissions. Transportation Research Part D 38 (July 2015), 80 - 93
The well-to-wheel emissions associated with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) depend on the source of electricity and the current non-vehicle demand on the grid, thus must be evaluated via an integrated systems approach. We present a network-based dispatch model for the California electricity grid consisting of interconnected sub-regions to evaluate the impact of growing PEV demand on the existing power grid infrastructure system and energy resources. This model, built on a linear optimization framework, simultaneously considers spatiality and temporal dynamics of energy demand and supply. It was successfully benchmarked against historical data, and used to determine the regional impacts of several PEV charging profiles on the current electricity network. Average electricity carbon intensities for PEV charging range from 244 to 391 gCO2e/kW h and marginal values range from 418 to 499 gCO2e/kW h.
Keywords: plug-in electric vehicle charging; greenhouse gas emissions; electricity dispatch model; network optimization